Parade of Boats on the Columbian Lagoons

I have studied not only the social, construction, archaeologial, ethnographic and other aspects of the World’s Columbian Exposition, but I’ve also searched for information on various athletic events. I’ve found medals, but with no specific event designation. I have found information and a program for military games, but nothing for “athletic” events. I’ve even seen a photo of gymnasts and weight lifters, but nothing detailing competition. (We will post that photo shortly.)

One interesting pseudo-competition I have discovered was a variety of boat parades and races in the main lagoon off the “coast” of Wooded Island. Rather than discuss the events, I’ve copied a description from one of the myriad works by Hubert Bancroft. He was criticized for having assistants do much of his voluminous work, but that’s hardly fair. Most every historian (who can afford it) today utilizes one or more assistants (often grad students) to accomplish much of the leg work. So while Bancroft’s style often annoys me (after all, it was Victorian writing), here is a synopsis of the hardcore events on the Columbian waters. There actually were various races of the boats but we’re trying to locate an account of them and will post the information when/if we can find it. Following is Bancroft’s description of “Marine Day.”

“On the 25th of October, or marine day as it was termed (since this was virtually the end of the fair, a variety of light-hearted events took place), a parade of boats formed in four divisions, their course being around the wooded island, through the north canal and grand basin, and thence returning to their starting point. They were of many types and represented many nations, forming a novel and intersting spectacle as they glided through the waterways. First came the naval squadron of gifs, dingies, cutters, launches, and whaleboatss, from men of war, from the Viking ship, the caravels, and the New Bedford whaler moored off the grounds. The fisheries division followed, with dories, striker and folding boats, dug-outs, Lofoden island and other fishing boats, Eskimo kiaks(sic), and Dahomean canoes. Next was the transportation squadron, in which were row-boats, canvas and other canoes, gondolas, coast-guard, motor, and life-boats, electric, steam, gas, and naphtha launches, a Norwegian pleasure boat, a Turkish caique, a bicycle boat, and a Ceylonese catamaran. In the last or miscellaeous division were boats of ancient pattern and Indian craft of strange device. In the afternoon there was hornpipe dancing by young girls in sailor garb, and at night a mimic battle in which fireworks took the place of weapons.”

While I often twitch, snort and grow annoyed when reading Bancroft due to his writing style and not infrequent modification of the facts, the man and whatever team of assistants he employed deserve credit for having written a massive amount about the fair. He could take a jingling musical instrument from say a Samoan band and expend 250 words on how it sounded. Without Bancroft, however, we would be dramatically less knowledgeable about the fair and equally sparse about the characteristics of the thousands of non-caucasian participants. We’ll have more information WCE WEIGHTLIFTERES.jpgcourtesy of the loquacious Bancroft yet to come. The photo above which we found some years ago, unfortunately does not come with anything other than identification as the gymnasts/weight lifters. Our “to find” list is always long and determining what building in which this photo was taken and details of these athletes’ participation remain unknown–for now.


A profuse apology….

My intention has been to provide ongoing information and anlysis of the World’s Columbian Exposition continually and I fell dramatically short over the last several months. No doubt those of you who are regular visitors to this blog noticed the Grand Canyon of gaps in editorial. The reason: I injured my back twenty years ago (yup, playing soccer in my late forties) and after a variety of unsuccessful and mildly helpful treatments, as they say, “I submitted to the knife.” But fortunately surgical technology has evolved dramatically, so that “knife” is hardly what it used to be. I had a fusion–without hardware!–over a three-disc area in my lower spine.

Rather than a hefty knife, the surgery was accomplished with two half-inch incisions and aided by microscopes rather than large blades. The fusion, as opposed to the typically envisioned rods, screws and or plates, this one was quite natural: The fusion was accomplished by inserting cadaver bone between the vertebra.

So after this monumental (to me at least) event I had a more debilitating problem, a neurological issue that lasted some five months and only now is 90% resolved. I was sent to the excellent Parkinson’s research facility here which frankly scared the hell out of me. I was told the best neurological docs worked there on many issues other than Parkinson’s, so my fears were quickly abated. The doctor’s first comment was “you don’t have Parkinson’s” which despite her rather cool approach thrilled me quite obviously.

She and my regular physician believed my tremors, shakes, jerks and other issues were caused by medication, but they were somewhat guessing as to which one or which combination thereof. So I spent far longer than I’d like taking this medication and eliminating that one, and combining these, and changing the does on that and still having difficulty typing, drinking and so on. Can you picture someone at the keyboard attempting to use the mouse and suddenly having it fly across the desk? Or attempting to drink a glass of water and tossing the glass across the counter. And not being able to text accurately even slowing using only my index finger. It’s been an adventure.

Now, with this journey from last spring to the first of December seems as if it is coming to a close. The tremors are virtually gone, although the speed and accuracy of my typing has only partially returned. And my back? I actually experienced a few days pain-free, but driven by the neurologcal problem I had the misfortune of falling a couple times which has caused a return of some level of back pain. I’d especially like to thank the Seattle Mariners fan whowaved his arm wildly at the end of a game and sent me backwards landing on the concrete steps on my back. Not what one should do shorly after surgery. Next stop–a visit with the surgeon in January.

All this adds up to what seems like a silly excuse (to me) for my absence here for many months. It’s all been more difficult to get my head around the situation than to evaluate the purely physical problems. I’ll do my best to get back on a schedule of sharing Columbian information quite soon! Thanks for your patience and please do read the other posts I’m sharing this week! –Norm Bolotin


AN ESSAY ON COLUMBIAN KNOWLEDGE with a view toward the immense volume of world’s fair tickets

In studying the World’s Columbian Exposition for nearly 40 years and writing two history books on the subject, as well numerous articles, essays and analyses, I’ve obviously come to understand a wide variety of rudimentary facts about the fair. But there are many specific areas where I’ve become sagaciously enlightened, where I’ve taken my expertise to another level.

By immersing oneself in a single topic of the fair at one time it’s possible to achieve a level of expertise that you simply cannot when exploring a subject as vast as the entire fair.

I’ve studied the Midway, the fair’s concessions, medals, souvenirs and tickets. I’ve made the study of each topic a personal mission. Certainly in two books and 40 years I’ve learned a bit about the world’s fair in general. While I can discuss concerts, sheet music, marching bands and exotic musical instruments of various villagers on the Midway, I would never consider myself an expert in the minutiae of musical performances and performers. And what about the water craft so prevalent in the exposition dedicated to Christopher Columbus? The New York Naval Parade was a massive display of warships from various countries. What about the replica of Columbus’ fleet and the gondolas and electric launches that plied the lagoons?

My first Columbian book, coauthored with my busies partner and spouse, Christine Laing, was commissioned by the National Trust for Historic Preservation for the centennial of the fair. That project came with a simple set of guidelines: Write an overall history of the fair, from Chicago’s winning the Congressional bid to host the fair, to building structures from grand building to those of the Midway and take the reader on a stroll through the fair that still lays claim to the greatest exposition of all time.

The biggest difficulty writing that book was condensing tens of thousands of pages into a story of the fair. Where we had a vast knowledge of a subject, the task was condensing it into a paragraph. Just taking the reader on a walk around the grounds that could take two weeks in real time meant we had to tell a story that wanted to be many times longer.

Our story of the Midway was much more detailed and personal. Instead of the massive fair we were tasked with in the first book we had a story to tell that stretched just one miles from east to west.But academically our goal was to accomplish what was never done before: Understanding every aspect of the Midway, of its concessions and the disparate people who lived there. Our goals was to introduce every Samoan, African and Bedouin to our readers. We were able to delve into the sales of souvenirs, the divergent entertainment and even the contracts that made the Midway possible. It all provided both the mortar and soul that brought the world to the doorstep of cultures they’d never seen before.

So why this preamble? Because collecting tickets is only the beginning of the endeavor. Tickets are doorways to concessions, to restaurants, to performances….to human beings from around the globe. Some 20 years ago several colleagues and collectors asked me to write a catalog of Columbian tickets. I soon realized that the task was dramatically larger than any of us thought. Not only are there perhaps ten times more tickets and passes than most of us thought, but there are myriad stories behind each one. Just how I will be able to accomplish this task is unsure, but as I spent recent weeks assembling the material that follows I became determined to finish.

And as I’ve learned more and more about tickets, it became clear that just as with the Midway, the task must be driven by passion and for the serious collector (individual or museum and library collection) one needs to learn everything possible, not just collect a yellow ticket and a blue pass. These tickets are intimate pieces of the fair’s stories, the palettes and the wallpaper and also the invaluable stories we don’t want to lose over time.

My own passion for all things Columbian is far too great to complete as much as I would like. This blog allows me to share mostly short stories about the fair, but I also hope to continue to share self-contained essays such as recently done on Day of Sale tickets and the following information.

Also, this subject is directly linked to our most recent post discussing our forthcoming two-part sale of rare Columbiana. The material in the sales represents the finest group of tickets in the marketplace in more than a decade.

In 2007 and 2008 two of the finest collections became available. Longtime friend and colleague David Flippin sold his collection first. It contained several one-of-a-kind tickets, the only ones known in the hobby. In 2008 I sold my collection of approximately 600 tickets via a Heritage Auction sale which grossed $40,000 and also contained several unique specimens. Many of these are represented in the following information on Columbian tickets and their prices.

I use the term “prices” rather than values for obvious reasons. One can see on ebay that a ticket sells for $50 today, the identical ticket sells for $100 tomorrow and a third example might easily sell for $40 or $140 the next day. It is all about who is bidding or buying when a given ticket is for sale and more so, if multiple buyers want the same item. It is all too common to see 30 bids on an ebay lot—14 by bidder A and 14 by bidder B, with a couple of inconsequential bids thrown in for good measure. We recently saw a common ticket on ebay—that routinely sells for $50±—sell for nearly $500 because Collectors A and B were both apparently determined to win the ticket. We assume the underbidder simply purchased the next one available for $50.

You will see the range of prices in tickets listed that follow. Our goal is to show approximate “values” by way of showing multiple selling prices. It’s then up to the future buyer to determine just how much the item is worth to him or her.

I apologize for the length of the introduction. But I felt it was necessary before I moved on to a small portion of my treatise on Columbian tickets. The number of tickets is overwhelming. Following are just a few articles in the context of my study.

–The complete list of 51 Day of Sale tickets, which was published when we discovered several new examples. It was published April 15.
–The announcement of our major sale of Columbian tickets upcoming in two parts this summer, which was published May 22.
–The complete list as I know it of “Stand or S.” tickets. I have to assume that many of you have seen others and I would love to have you share that information. Included is information on the entire process of “S” tickets as well as a list of them. This follows immediately after this introduction.
–In going through my data files of photos and ticket reference (that requires an enormous amount of work) I have completed a list of tickets that include those for which

I have data that have sold for more than approximately $200. It is complete in that I have compiled it over several decades, but I am also sure that some have escaped me. You will notice dozens of tickets not on the list because in the past several decades they have sold for anywhere from $50 to $200—steam ship tickets, Electric Launch & Navigation tickets, Old Vienna, Germany and of course Stand tickets. This is intended to expand the knowledge of Columbian tickets dramatically….and at the same time to cause many collectors to say “wait, I have a $450 ticket that should be included.” I hope that all those reading this report will share any omissions or other data they have. My goal is to compile the most complete information on Columbian tickets as possible.


You can always contact me at or via phone at 425-481-8818.

Thanks for taking your time to read this material.

Norm Bolotin
The History Bank
P.O. Box 1568
Woodinville, WA 98072


NOTE: As ticket transactions occur. our data changes continually. In just January-May 2018 numerous noteworthy sales took place. We have added them to the information that follows and each is in bold italic type.



Stand Number Tickets Known

Columbian Stand Tickets Known-By Number Stand Ticket Denominations
Design of Stand ticket with no number 10 cents
S. 3 (Cons.13) 5 cents Moorish Palace
S. 3 (Cons 13) 10 cents Moorish Palace
S. 3 (Cons 13) 25 cents Moorish Palace
S. 5 5 cents
S. 7 5 cents
S. 6 or 8 (top cut off) not recorded
S. 9 5 cents
S. 11 10 cents
S. 15 10 cents
S. 17 10 cents
S. 18 10 cents
S. 19 10 cents
S. 20 10 cents
S. 21 25 cents
S. 22 25 cents
S. 23 25 cents
S. 24 25 cents
S. 25 25 cents
S. 26 25 cents
S. 26 50 cents
S. 27 25 cents
S. 29 25 cents
S. 29 50 cents
S. 32 50 cents
S. 35 50 cents
S. 38 $1.00
S. 41 $1.00


S. 46 $2.00
S. 49 $2.00
S. 50 $2.00
S. 51 25 cents
S. 51 $2.00
S. 57 $5.00
S. 58 $5.00
S. 62 15 cents
S. 63 5 cents
S. 64 10 cents
S. 64 15 cents Wellington
S. 65 15 cents 
S. 65 25 cents Wellington
S. 66 50 cents Wellington
S. 67 $1.00 Wellington
S, 101 5 cents
S. 102 5 cents

2018 Stand ticket sales: S102-$99. $68, 40, 22; S64-$100; S65 marked Wellington $90;

S58-($5.00)-$190. 159, 95; S22-$32





Standard Tickets $1800, 1793, 1600, 1500, 1375, 100, 698  2018-$1395

Estimates of Ferris Wheel tickets in existence range from 30-50 in the
the marketplace and collections. We saw a badly damaged ticket sell for $1000 and
the $698 was likely also damaged.

Ferris Wheel Essay Proof  $1800 Only known example

Ferris Wheel post-fair ticket with vaudeville admission & Ferris Wheel ride $799 (Only known example)

Ferris Wheel certificate of ride $788

Ferris Invitation/pass to ride $508


Foldout ticket book $1900

Natatorium was intended to be multi-purpose with pool, gym and restaurant.
After installing pipe from Lake Michigan to the Midway for some reason, possibly financial, the pool never opened–likely a reason for the rarity of tickets
Strip of 5 tickets $1500
Strip of 8 tickets $818
Gymnase ticket with stub $508, 325
25 cent ticket $295
Gymnase 50 cents $325, 275
Single strip ticket $149

Vertical transit $833, 795, 795, 795, 795,695, 495

We purchased a lot of these tickets in the late 1990s and sold four of them for $795, the last two for $695 and $495; A buyer paid the $833 figure in my 2008 auction at Heritage.

Hale Elevator $508, 455, 350

Rare but less so than the Vertical Transit tickets.


Rolling Chair Ticket, $1195, 1120, 999, 766, 600

For wheel chairs that yellow and red examples could be rented by the hour or day
and with or without an attendant.

Portable chair/
camp chair $1352, 956


Festival Hall Railroad Day $598
Festival Hall Closing ceremonies $598
Chorus Membership $717 (Possibly unique)
As You Like It $275
Musical $250
Festival Chorus $598
Sylvan Dell $311, 294
Children’s Musical $239
Festival Hall Italian Day $202


HANDEL graded/slabbed $1000

HANDEL graded/slabbed $800

FRANKLIN graded/slabbed $900

In our opinion this grading for tickets is ludicrous. A gem mint
“raw” is comparable and easy to come by at $40-$80 per ticket.


We undertook a brief study in February to May 2018 to compare sales prices on admission tickets. The following is derived from those months’ sales on ebay. Obviously it would be far more insightful to conduct a 12-month count but I feel that these figures are similar to what we would see if we studied a full year’s sales.

Handel 10 sales
with an average of $90 per sale exclusive of
a slabbed sale of $800.
Franklin 8 sales with an
average of $70 per sale exclusive
of a slabbed sale of $900.

Washington 22 sales with an
average of $47 per sale.

Indian 11 tickets , average of $38 per sale.

Lincoln 12 tickets with an
average of $34 per sale.

Washington 22 ticket with an
average of $47 per sale.

Chicago Day with stub 13 tickets
with an average sale of $69.

Chicago Day Children’s ticket 4 tickets
with an average sale of $95.

Manhattan Day with stub 9 sales with
an average sale of $62.


Specimen Tickets with 00000 numbers

Franklin $695, 649, 538
Lincoln $599, 288
Indian $599
Unrecorded which ticket but a 00000 specimen $406

Indian Proof, heavy stock, uniface, no number $700


Ticket books—large size and much rarer small size,
with photos, ID and tear-out daily tickets $500, 425, 415, 395, 275, 260, 250, 220

Assume many other examples have been sold in the $175-$250 range over the years.

———————————————————————————————————————-TICKETS FOR OFFSITE PRODUCTIONS

Buffalo Bill $865, 810

Siege of Sebastopol $1136
Art Institute 1892 membership card $418

Congresses were held at the new Art Institute and subsequent membership cards after the fair (1894-5-6) sold for less than $100 each.



5 admission tickets $2887

No explanation for the ordinary tickets combining for this amount.
Either there was a heated bidding war or someone had no idea of the value. The 5 tickets should have fetched between $200 and $300 depending on the tickets.

29 Day of Sale tickets sold
as a lot $657

German concert Garden
strip of 9 tickets with last one
damaged $750

German Concert Garden
strip of four tickets $325

Moorish Palace strip of
nine tickets with last one
damaged $750

Moorish Palace group of 5, 10
and 25 cent tickets $350

Moorish Palace 25 cent
strip of four tickets $295

Hagenbeck group of 4—
Arena First Gallery, Check,
Circle $478

Cost Rica ticket and 3 tokens
(all for coffee) $335

Tokens would likely bring dramatically more today.

5 Clow tickets $1500

British brochure, flyer and
ticket for military mock battle $495

Ticket only for British
military show $249

NY Naval Parade, 3 pieces— $896
Men’s pass, Ladies’ Pass,
ship’s ticket

Java Village group of 25 cents
Type II, Theater, 10 cents Type I
and entrance $508

Type I is the cross hatch pattern across the two part tickets from
25 cents to $20 in grouped colors.

Type II are solid color/no cross hatch
and rarely seen and are perhaps 20x as rare as Type I. It is unknown if Type II were first used and quickly abandoned or used at the end of the fair and thus seldom seen

Group of 16 Java Village Type I tickets:
10, 25, 50 cents;$1, $1.25, $1.50, $2.00 (2),
$2.25, $34, $5, $6, $7, $9, and $10. $568



Camera Obscura, Tree of Wonder $3107–the most expensive Columbian ticket known

This most expensive of all WCE tickets is the only known example.
The concession was planned, possibly under construction, but
never opened. Per our MIDWAY book when the grounds were open between dedication and Opening a visitor to this concession could have been given a ticket in anticipation of opening, which never occurred.

Partial Coil of Return Passes $2500

The only other roll ever offered is the one from The History Bank currently available

Kilauea Volcano on Midway $2008

Ticket for opening day which sold for $2008, one of the highest prices paid for a single ticket.

Clow Single Ticket $1016, 952

These are examples of multiple bidders driving up prices as Clow tickets
generally are less than $500. Some collectors have tried to acquire each letter/color on the tickets and someone finding the elusive one they needed could account for the high prices.

Mammoth Ice Caves $1000

Contrary to popular beliefs, the caves were NOT on the Midway. The
only known ticket does not have the Caves printed on it but rather the
concessionaires—Keith & Allabough.

Grand Ball after the fair
for employees $956

International Ball $239

2018 10-cent good for use in phone booth-$341 (unique ticket)

Whaling Ship “Progress” $1500

Kodak permit for camera use $750

Kodak sticker permit for the
camera $275

We know of at least one other hanging permit that was torn at the bottom. This is the only sticker we have ever seen and we assume it was given out with the permit–to hang around the photographer’s neck and the sticker to put on the camera.

Chocolate Menier $455, 388, 299, 275, 200, 100

One of many chocolate vendors onhe grounds. Interestingly every  ticket known is marked “series II”and we know of no series I.

Hagenbeck’s Circle $380

Hagenbeck’s Arena $160

2018-Hagenbeck”s Private Box-Unique $550

Hagenbeck’s workman pass $154

Dozens of Hagenbeck tickets are known and they generally sell in the $80-150 range

German Concert Garden $312, 2018-$78

Over the years we have seen many Concert Garden tickets and simply have not recorded prices; but the tickets generally are $250-$350

Dahomey $300, 215, 200

Dahomey tickets are quite rare and one could expect to pay $250-$450 for an example today.

Java Theater $289, 175, 165, 2018: $71


Libbey 10, 15, 25 cent–$283, 275, 203, 193, 192

These admission tickets were exchanged on goods in the huge glassware facility. We

 heard of ticket selling for over $300 on ebay in April 2018


Turkish Theater $275

Turkish Theater is very scarce but not as much as only one record here would indicate.


Lapland $332, 299, 289, 250, 150

Very typical of pricing and how it varies based on many circumstances; a Lapland ticket is very desirable and a current price of $250-$350 is typical.


German Restaurant Table d’hôte $675, 500

2018-Golden Door Restaurant in Transportation Building plus card for Table d’hote $322


Cairo Street 25 cent ticket $285  
Cairo Street Pass $350  
Cairo Street Handwritten pass $800

2018-Egyptological Exhibition adjacent to Cairo Street, tombs/mummies, etc. UNIQUE-$900

Cairo prices area clearly going up. Handwritten passes are very rare and seemingly bargains at any price

2018-Captive Balloon, no known ticket for balloon ride, this for restaurant in the partk Unique-$750

Steamship return checks $352 x 4

A single purchase of $1408; normal steamship tickets (one-way, round-trip, rounded corners, squared corners) are scarce but not rare and can usually be had for $75-$150.

Ice Railway $261, 250, 250, 245

Ice Railway strip of three $448

Ice Railway joined pair $299


Movable Sidewalk $203, 179, 160; 2018-$196
(blue and green, no difference )
Movable Sidewalk complimentary ticket $462

As with many concessions that have a historical price of $125-250 you can expect to pay closer to $300 as of 2018 and the growing demand from a growing population of  collectors. Comp ticket is the only one every seen.


International Dress & Costume  (Beauty Show)    

Pass $875, 465 ; ticket $285, 282, 275; contractor pass $294


French Cider Press
10 cents, porcelain or glass- $2000

Arrived from auction cracked; Could well have been $4,000-5,000 undamaged.


German Village Free Cup of Cocoa (octagonal brass token) $995

Stand 101—sale when this Stand number was first discovered; still
somewhat scarce. $575



Ticket through police line  dedication/parade $633, 406

Hand-written note through the police is known to exist and sold in the vicinity of $1000 circa 2005

Austro-Hungarian Gazette  $717
pass to the fair from the paper (very odd piece)

2018-Admission to Illinois Board Session (Unique)–$700

Complimentary pass to grounds $231

There are no fewer than a dozen different passes used for admission to the grounds.

Pass to the grounds, $231, 170

Press Pass (reserved) to the grounds   $494

Admit to the Grounds before April 30   $499

Closing Ceremonies pass $598

Reserved seat for dedication $362

Dedication Ceremonies, various passes and tickets $494, 359, 300, 287, 215, 191, 184

Dedication reserved seat $362, 128

Civic parade Viewing Stand $361

Corps De Guard Hand written $687

California Building Pass $239

Specific Pre-Opening Pass $425, 249

Pass within Buildings $250

2-part admission, perforated in center $179, 160 (seen as both blue and yellow examples)

Opening Ceremonies pass $263

Press Pass with brown ink and
large image of Columbus $359, 215

Columbian Club ticket ticket book$149

Congress Auxiliary Pass $239

Congress Reporter Table $799

Raymond Vacation ticket book Admission to grounds $388

Several other companies including the Columbian Society provided tickets for lodging, food, entrance to the grounds, etc.

Palmer House Hotel $263
Unclear what the ticket was for



Intramural RR employee pass and ticket book $837

2008 SALE–belonging to Rodney Dexter whose diary and other papers sold in our Heritage auction.

Pass for Intramural Railway $465

Intramural Rwy standard ticket $351, 339, 300, 299, 295, 255, 200, 175, 165; 2018-$149. 78

Intramural Rwy
—Employee and exhibitor strip ticket from book $837, $339 $2018- $450, $159
—Commissioner strip ticket $1912, 999, 2018-$650
—Complimentary standard blue ticket $999, 400
—Engineer’s pass $750

Pennsylvania RR ticket to fair for Eugene Field $598

2018: John Bull Train, including specific days (ie Railroad Day) have brought $30-$60 routinely over the years. 2018-$294, 74



Steamship pass $388

2018: Steamship one-way tickets–$178, 157, 108, 78, 66

Steamship ticket $75-150

Steamship tickets from downtown to fair pier were white, brown, one way, roundtrip and rounded corners and squared quarters. They typically sell for $75-$150.

EL&N Co./Electric Launch and Navigation Co. $305, 261, 239, 203; 2018- $108



Contractor $294, 2018-$158, 66

Wagon Permit $396

Workman’s pass/permit $342, 334 294, 231, 179, 160, 154

Import pass (unclear as to purpose) $599

Employee pass to grounds $362, 254, 158

Admit before April 30 $499

Press Pass $275, 149, 114

All ticket information copyright 2018, Norman P. Bolotin, The History Bank

Major Columbian Ticket Rarities Sale Announced for this Summer

We are in the midst of assembling more than 125 lots of Columbian material for a forthcoming sale. Our plans are for a two-part sale–tentatively in July and September–which will include a remarkable collection of tickets discovered recently in a New York estate.

The tickets were in a homemade album and a couple, sorting through the belongings of a relative, discovered the album among stacks of personal papers. The tickets have all been carefully removed from the album and while they have small glue or paper remnants on the back, they display perfectly well with no damage on the front.

We are currently inventorying the tickets, cataloging them in relation to similar and identical tickets, and appraising each one based on known sales of identical tickets over the past 40 years.

Thus far we have discovered at least ten previously unknown and unique tickets. In our 40 years of studying the World’s Columbian Exposition and fair tickets, passes and related paper items, we have never found a collection or accumulation with so many unique pieces before.

Obviously, having researched, studied, collected and sold Columbiana and Columbian tickets for nearly 40 years, this is the most exciting find we have had the good fortune to study and appraise.

The two sales will be a “Bid or Buy” and will be on our “” site. Every ticket will be photographed and as opposed to many sales which provide only the most basic information, we will include historical sales data and information about the concessions/tickets.

In a “Bid or Buy” sale, participants will have the opportunity to enter a “buy” amount and instantly own the item. Those taking the more conservative “bid” route will have theopportunity to enter a single bid and the highest bid will win the item unless the “buy” option is used.

For example, a minimum bid of $200 may be set and a “buy” figure of $400. If no one purchases at the $400 level, the highest of the $200+ bids will win. This structure allows sales participants the opportunity to avoid protracted bidding and obtain the items for the most reasonable amount. We will set the “buy” prices based on historical sales data and the overall process should allow buyers to obtain rare tickets at a very reasonable price.

The lots will be divided roughly in half between the two sales and should any tickets fail to sell, we will offer them immediately after the second sale on ebay.

Besides the tickets a small number of other Columbian rarities will be offered in the sale.

When my own collection of World’s Columbian tickets was sold in 2008 by Heritage Auctions, approximately 600 tickets (many in multiple ticket lots) grossed approximately $40,000. This collection of 125 tickets should easily average more per ticket than we did in 2008.

We will publish an essay on tickets on this site shortly, including historical prices for tickets–in multiple sales–which can be used as important guides to the values of the tickets in these forthcoming sales. Look for this document shortly after the posting of this one.

In our continuing research and writing about the World’s Columbian Exposition, we are cataloging ALL tickets from the fair and also working on a study of concessions and other financial aspects of the fair. The essay that follows provides the most comprehensive details on Columbian tickets yet published.

If you have questions or comments on the upcoming sales or on our research please contact me at or via phone at 425-481-8818. I am always looking for additional data and for previously unknown tickets which collectors or museums may own.vt_2063_front.jpg

The Vertical Transit ticket is quite rare and I was fortunate to have acquired a lot of six about 15-20 years ago, which sold for $795 each. The forthcoming sale includes a Vertical Transit ticket, one of which hasn’t been seen in the marketplace in many years.

51 Different World’s Columbian Day of Sale Tickets Now Identified

Last December (2017) we reported that a new number/letter combination from the World’s Columbian Exposition Day of Sale tickets had been found, a ticket bearing the combination 5/Y. We failed, at that time, to report on the collector who had just acquired that piece, a longtime friend, Keith Demke.

After reviewing our complete list of tickets which we published last June, Keith also reports another previously unknown ticket in his collection, 4/L.

It’s rather remarkable that we now have identified 51 different tickets and one has to wonder how many others were used at the fair. In reviewing our files for nearly two decades of information on this subject to prepare this article, we noticed that two earlier discoveries had somehow gone unreported; we have added those (4/M and 6/M) to our master list of known number/letter combinations.

Harlow Higinbotham explained his logic in using so many different combinations and it was a shock to collectors to discover that long-held assumptions about the tickets were wrong. Higinbotham explained the fair’s approach in his post-exposition final report to his board of directors that random combinations were used to thwart would-be counterfeit attempts. Higinbotham and others in the leadership group of the World’s Columbian Exposition were especially concerned—one might say paranoid—that counterfeiters might discover the day’s ticket information and illicitly sell counterfeit 50-cent admission tickets. Even if they had, the disruption to cashflow from ticket sales that reached 21 million paid admissions hardly could have been significant. But as it was, because of Higinbotham’s vigilance, the forgeries or other entrances without official tickets were virtually non-existent.

The general consensus among collectors which I heard from 1980 forward was that the ticket number probably represented the month of the fair; that made sense when one considered that the combinations only went from 1-to-6 and that the fair was open six months. But that logic failed in a couple of regards, but was still adhered to for years by many. The biggest problem with that theory was the great disparity from number to number when in fact it does NOT coincide with ticket need/attendance by month.

Including the 5/Y and 4/L (and previously discovered 4/M and 6/M) additions, there are 15 known Number 1 combinations; four Number 2; four Number 3; just three Number 4; five number Five; and 12 Number 6. One cannot find any way to correlate that to the months the fair was opened. Also, the collector community theory failed to address the single letter tickets, of which eight are known. But absent any better ideas, that was generally accepted for 35 years, until we discovered and published Higinbotham’s explanation. Just how he or others selected the combinations to use will never be known, but he said it was simply a process of selecting random number/letter combinations and then using them randomly. Consequently, the fact that perhaps the most commonly seen combination is 1/S just means that combination was probably used a bit more than any other. The other bit of deduction in all this that might even contradict our logic in the previous sentence is that tickets were handed to the scores of ticket takers as visitors entered and they were immediately destroyed. Perhaps the tickets in museum and personal collections, the 51 different combinations now known, simply represent the tickets purchased and never used….and the leftover unused tickets that were sold later as souvenirs.

This is all part of that long list of minutiae related to the World’s Columbian Exposition that one can spend endless hours studying and never find the complete answer.

When the first (and thus far only) reference was published about WCE tickets (Doolin, 1980) there were 23 known number/letter combinations. When I sold my ticket collection


We have not been able to quantify Day of Sale tickets extant to provide a statistical rarity, so such categorizing has to come from personal observation. The 6/J ticket shown here, for example, is one of the more scarce tickets. 1/S and 1/L are clearly those we have seen (and that have been reported) most often over the years.

In 2008 we had added 9 more to the total. In the last nearly ten years we have identified another 19 (including the 5/Y and 4/L cited here). Following is a complete list of the 51 known Day of Sale tickets.

Single letters (8): G L, N, R, S*, U, Y, X

Number 1 (15): 1/D*, 1/E, 1/F*, 1/G*, 1/H*, 1/J, 1/K, 1/L*, 1/N*, 1/O*, 1/P*, 1/R*, 1/S*, 1/T, 1/Y*

Number 2 (4): 2/J*, 2/L, 2/M*, 2/X

Number 3 (4): 3/A*, 3/B, 3/G, 3/H*

Number 4 (3): 4/H, 4/L, 4/M

Number 5 (5): 5/R, 5/S*, 5/T*, 5/U*, 5/Y

Number 6 (12): 6/A, 6/B*, 6/C*, 6/G, 6/J, 6/L, 6/M, 6/N, 6/O, 6/P*, 6/R*, 6/S

The 23 combinations published in Doolin’s work in 1980 are noted with an asterisk (*).

Obviously, should any reader know of other details regarding Day of Sale tickets, including letter/number combinations beyond the 51 noted here, we would be very grateful to hear from you. Please contact The World’s Columbian Journal, Norman Bolotin, at or phone us at (425) 481-8818.

Vandals on the Midway after Closing

On this site and in our books about the World’s Columbian Expo we’ve discussed how quickly and painfully the fair evaporated after closing. Buildings were demolished; architectural devices inside and out of the Grand Buildings were sold; foreign and state buildings were dismantled (a few sold intact that were removed and put to other uses); fires started or were set and large chunks of the fair succumbed that way. But on the Midway, months after the fair closed it was open season for looters. Some concessions hired guards to protect their villages and buildings until they could dismantle them, while others had abandoned what was left that they didn’t want. This was the first time (January 3, 1894) since the October closing that treasure hunters and just those wanting a last look at the fair were allowed on site.

The Chicago Tribune newspaper reported on the demise of most of what was left of the Midway in an article the next day. The following is an excerpt from that article. Like most Victorian writing, it can become cumbersome and too flowery to read when all you want are the facts, but it does paint an accurate picture of the chaos that transpired along the Midway.

Five thousand people made merry in the Midway yesterday. They did it by taking a little of everything in sight and from the small boy to the seal-coated woman and silk-tied man there was no hesitation about carrying away anything that came handy. The people were afoot, on bicycles and in carriages.  

The looting or relic-hunting began as soon as the gates were opened, and lasted all afternoon. Even little pieces were folded up and put in handbags. 

Early in the day the people having charge of the Java Village secured permission to swear in half a dozen policemen and they were kept busy trying to prevent the destruction of the place. The relic-hunters waited until an officer’s back was turned. Then they boldly grabbed off some of the thatched roofs of the little dwellings and tore away the sides. In this business young and old women were equally industrious with the men. In fact one of the officers declared he had more difficulty in keeping the women from demolishing the huts than the other class of vandals. 

Everywhere it seemed to be a general free-for-all with no compunctions of conscience. One nicley dressed old lady with spectacles and gray hair plodded cheerfully along the Midway towards the west entrance, with a piece of a bamboo roof and a number of pieces of poles under one arm, and her capacious handbag in the other. A whole family of a mother and four daughters created a great deal of amusement by marching along, each loaded with rubbish. The girls were not averse to loading the stuff on their shoulders, although their clothes were of the semi-elegant sort.

At one of the little (Java) houses…could be seen the bodies of people protruding, their heads were lost in the interior. “What is der to see in dah?” asked one negro who had been waiting his turn to poke his head in the window. 

The site of the Venice-Murano Glass Works was a great place for relic-hunters. There was nothing left but debris but 100 men, boys, and girls poked around with sticks in the ashes, where the furnaces had stood, looking for bits of colored glass. They seemed perfectly happy to have discovered two or three pieces. The small boys, though, were not contented until they filled little bags with the rubbish. The gayly-colored lithographs left by Hagenbeck and other concessionaires were eagerly sought.

Curious ones were seen peering into the empty hygeia water booths looking for something to carry away. The Italian, with his capacious bag, was among them, and every old bottle he could find went into his sack.

More than half the state and foreign buildings are standing….most buildings are cleared of exhibits. The Fisheries building…Manufactures building…all the buildings have been emptied of their displays. Visitors are excluded in order to prevent the relic fiends from carrying off the property.

While I’m sure there was more to report, thus was the inauspicious end to virtually the entire Midway. Fortunately, while many of the concessions lost bits and pieces of their structures and building decorations, all of the concessions seemed to have escaped with all of their merchandise, musical instruments, costumes…and their health. The newspaper reporter I am sure would have cited any examples of items of value that were looted should they have been there for the taking.

*     *     *     *     *

As we have said previously, we are anxious to hear of any items sold as merchandise along the Midway, or verified as relics from any concession. Please let us know if you are aware of or have any such items. We are working on two World’s Columbian Expo projects: We have discussed the catalog of all tickets from the fair in the past but have not yet announced the future publication examining ALL 360 concessions at the fair and the financial aspects of each, along with other fair data and analysis. This project will provide previously unpublished information on concessions which will allow museums and collectors to link items from the fair to specific vendors. We will provide more details as the project takes shape.

Rare Exposition Medal–Not From the World’s Columbian Expo

While this journal is dedicated to the World’s Columbian Exposition, and there certainly are thousands of posts we could offer from it, we felt that sharing this information on a medal we recently discovered would be of interest to those collecting Columbiana. The following is from the text of the description of this unique Exhibitor’s Medal from the world’s first world’s fair in London in 1851.

Where to begin…..

This is an exhibitor’s medal from the first-ever exposition called a world’s fair in London, 1851, which took place at the Crystal Palace. The obverse of the medal features Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, who nearly single-handedly planned, oversaw and made an incredible success out of the 1851 world’s fair.Crystal Palace Named2.JPG

Exhibitors were presented with this medal, a very handsome high relief bronze, and the edge was engraved with the exhibitor’s name and the number assigned to them as an exhibitor. (Please note that the specks of dust below the bust of Prince Albert are just that, not any problem with the medal.)

We have in our forty years of handling world’s fair memorabilia owned two of these spectacular medals, neither of which was engraved to an exhibitor. Virtually all of the tiny handful of medals in the marketplae are extras from the minting. They were saved uncirculated and unengraved and it is those that normally show up every few years. Finding a presentation copy is so very difficult because they were presented to individuals, government agencies, private companies that were exhibitors. How many of the companies survived to even the 20th century?

That the world’s fair was held 167 years ago means most of the medals were passed on to an executive or family member, rolled from one desk to another attic and so on, such that over the 167 years most were simply lost to collectors. A very few may be found in museums. That this is the first engraved exhibitor medal we’ve been able to offer attests to the rarity. We have handled award medals for dozens of world’s fairs and our specialty, the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, produced many times more medals than any other fair (as awards) and few fairs offered such high-quality medallic art to those participating. Everything under the direction of Prince Albert was top-drawer, not just for the period. The venue of glass was a unique showhplace for the time and would be considered an architectural triumph even today.

This medal is engraved to the joint exhibition of the countries of Sweden and Norway. We found it in Europe, which is no surprise. How it found its way to the commercial collector market was no doubt an interesting trail, but we’re not aware of how it began as a presentation piece in London and came up for auction inn 2017.

Crystal Palace Named3.jpg As a historian (having written two books on the Columbian Exposition) and consultant to many museums over the years I remain somewhat mystified that more named/engraved medals over the last 167 years aren’t stillknown outside of museums. That this was so long ago and at what has always been recognized as the world’s first world’s fair, makes this piece incredibly desirable and rare. On top of this, it is in immaculate condition, an amazing plus.

Finally, one thing I have learned over this many years of handling museum and exposition medals, for which there is no price guide per se, just knowledge of the marketplace, often means that the medals can be purchased for what sseems like a much lower cost that rarity should indicate.

An interesting comparison was a medal from the other fair which I have been invovled in all my life–the 1962 Seattle World’s Fair. There were not exhibitor or actual award medals for that exposition, but the U.S. Mint made a limited number of 5-ounce .999 silver versions of the official so-called dollar size bronze and silver medals sold to the general public. We had not seen one of these rare pieces in perhaps 15 or more years until one was on ebay and sold the first week of 2018 for $230. With an intrinsic value of five ounces of silver and marketplace that had seen a half-dozen sold in 25 years and just this one in the last decade and a half, should it not be substantially more expensive?

Crystal Palace Named4.JPGConsider the World’s Columbian award medals which generally are on ebay at least once or twice a month and perhaps 500 named recipient medals are known: A decent specimen will bring $200-$300 and many ask $500 or more (which doesn’t mean they will find a buyer), although we saw one nice but typical medal sell for $800.

The point is a simple one: Demand of collectors overrides rarity and condition.

This unique medal from the Crystal Palace and “The Exhibition of the Workds of Industry of all Nations” based on its condition and rarity and the importance of the event would suggest to me that it should be appraised at $1,000+/-. It also is obvious that there might be but one or two collectors in the world interested enough in this fair and medal to pay what condition and rarity would deem logical. I actually feel that pricing it as I have ($450, which seems both greatly underpriced and what should appeal to collectors) is almost sacrilege. It is certainly undervaluing a work of numismatic, historicaland medallic art.

This entire conundrum regarding value and worth is why when we have been asked to appraise individual and museum collections we provide a report and essay on all pertinent factors including demand as well as condition, rarity and historical significance….but also for insurance purposes, an amount that would be necessary to replace it–if items can be replaced. If this medal were say a U.S. or British coin, these problems would disappear. We have relatively sound knowledge of mintage, a matrix of known market value by condition and both buyers and sellers can immediately narrow the price range.

This issue of valuing collectibles and medals, and specifically those from the 1893 Columbian Exposition, can be researched and pertinent facts documented. But the obvious issue of demand is even more difficult to identify that it seems. The 1851 Crystal Palace medal illustrates this rather painfully. We often see items from the 1893 fair alongside very similar items from the next great fair, in St. Louis in 1904. Almost any time on ebay one can see parallels between the fairs. We just saw (January 2018) worker and concession passes from both fairs. If you could obtain one from Chicago for less than $100 it would be considered a bargain in the marketplace; a similar item from St. Louis (very clearly more scarce than one from Chicago) just sold for $20. The only answer is demand for Columbian items is much greater, so rarity becomes a minor factor.

We will report later on the sale of the Crystal Palace medal: Rarity and condition are known, and we also know that far fewer U.S. collectors are interested in European world’s fairs. As the seller, of course I would like to see the medal bring a reasonable price. But I’m well aware that rarity and condition, and historical significance, will take a back seat to a comparatively small group of potential buyers.

This entire subject should be of strong interest to anyone collecting Columbiana, even curators at the many museums that have such collections. Because for everyone involved we can do a comprehensive job of detailing rarity, evaluation condition and discussing relative historical value. But putting a dollar or replacement value focuses dramatically on the size of the pool of potential buyers.

Discovery of Previously Unknown Ticket From the World’s Columbian Exposition

57.jpgIf you have followed our posts, you are probably familiar with the chart of “Good Only on Day of Sale” tickets which we presented earlier. We have logged the Day of Sale tickets quite religiously for several decades and it is still surprising to discover a new number and letter combination.

This ticket was on ebay recently as part of an auction with a common admission ticket and the pair sold for something in the $35 range. We would, of course, have considered this ticket alone to be worth more than that due to the fact that it is the only known one. There may well be others out there, but no 5/Y has previously come up for sale or auction that we know of.

We are continuing our research and work on a book about cataloging tickets from the World’s Columbian Exposition and it is a long, slow process. We currently have 781 ticket scans collected, and it both includes some duplicates–and does NOT include many we know of that we do not yet have photos. For example, we do not have photographs collected in this file for all the Day of Sale Tickets, many passes and a great many of the rarer tickets.

We have begun very preliminary planning on how to structure the book and what it might look like–and if we will develop an option for collectors to purchase an online catalog either separate from or along with a printed book.

The very tedious task we’ve only just begun is taking a copy of the only catalog of any kind ever compiled (Doolin, 1980) and listing all of the tickets in a master file overlapping Doolin. His was a remarkably thorough work considering when it was done but it also was little more than a mention of most tickets. We hope to use exhaustive photographs and informational text categorized more expansively than done by Doolin, and a major addition will be a section on passes and other pseudo-tickets never before cataloged.

For now, the above 5/Y is just one of dozens never reported previously that will be in the book down the road a significant distance!


We have been setting aside rare books, brochures and printed material from the World’s Columbian Exposition, as well as other antiquarian material that thus far includes Civil War books, 19th century newspapers and documents and assorted other printed material.

We’re not sure how we will offer the material for sale–either a fixed-priced list or an auction–but the project has taken on a life of its own and grown beyond what we had in mind a few months ago. We have numerous stacks of books and other material in various corners of our office.

We’ll probably not have the material inventoried and described to offer for a some time. It might be most logical to wait until after the holidays.

In any event we would like to ask any of you who have interest in the material to please drop me a note to ensure we have you on the list when it comes time to announce the sale. While we have a master list of folks with interest in the World’s Columbian Exposition, many of you discovering this blog would not be on that list.

If you have interest in the antiquarian book sale please send an email at your convenience to, and we’ll make sure that you receive announcements when the time comes.

Besides several dozen rare and outstanding Columbian books, we’ll have photos, prints, brochures and other WCE material. The Civil War and 19th century material includes a very rare hardbound annual book on U.S. patents including the only patent every awarded to a United States President–Abraham Lincoln. We will also have some autographed material, as well as rare newspapers and period documents.

While it’s premature to say, I’m guessing we will have about 100 lots in the sale.



Of the tens of thousands of items we have seen from the World’s Columbian Exposition over the last 40 years, those that have concrete provenance that they were exhibited at the fair are minimal.

We certainly know of countless souvenirs–medals, spoons, brochures, photos, books, paperweights, glasses and on and on–that came from the exposition. In fact, the number of souvenirs from the Columbian Expo in 1893 probably outnumbers souvenirs from any other world’s fair.

But what about those items actually exhibited or sold that were not souvenirs and thus have no label identifying them as from the fair. For example, items sold on the Midway–also numbering in the thousands–were in homes around the world after the fair. And, many probably still remain with the families of fairgoers. Artwork and handiwork from around the globe–the Far East and the Middle East–from slippers to brasswork to oriental rugs and so on–were sold to visitors by vendors from Turkey, Palestine, Japan, China, Syria, Java, Samoa and dozens more. And in the state and foreign buildings as well as the main buildings, tens of thousands of articles were exhibited (and sold), again without any formal identification. Modern fairs, of course, carry price tags, identification tags and sewn-in labels on all types of items. Most collectors appreciate, and will pay a premium, to see a shirt with a sewn-in tag from say the 1939 New York World’s Fair. We recently sold a lovely young girl’s dress that had a specialty manufacturer’s tag sewn in; it had the fair name, the Trylon and Perisphere and was in the trademark orange of the exposition. It’s very common to see stickers on the bottom of souvenirs going back to the 1933-34 Chicago Century of Progress exposition and on to fairs in New York (1939),  San Francisco (1939), Seattle (1962), New York (1964-65) and more recently. And while many owners carefully pealed off the price tags and/or labels, they’re cherished by collectors. But in 1893 with great exception, such tags do not exist.

A receipt or a photograph (or preferably both) can link items to the fair, but they seldom exist. The ideal provenance package we have never seen assembled would be text about an exhibit, photographs of it and the official award medal. We have seen some award medals we know could be part of such a provenance package, but only recently saw one such collection that consisted of publications, photographs, actual printed 1893-era documents and an award medal all related to the whaleback steamship Christopher Columbus. While the ship wasn’t exactly a souvenir or part of an exhibit at the fair, it was an integral part of the exposition. It’s surprising that similar exhibits and collections have never been equally as painstakingly assembled.

WCE DOLL DRESS #4.JPGThe photograph above is, to the best of our knowledge, unique in this aspect, even though the work was never done to identify the seamstress who entered this personally designed and sewn ensemble for a doll. The multi-piece outfit remains in decent condition, although the cotton has faded and discolored somewhat over the years. As you probably know, there were exhibits (competitively shown and hoping for an award medal) of clothing, fruit, plants, electrical equipment, livestock, artwork and categories ad infinitum. Just the post-fair book on awards from the fair required 1,000+ pages to list them all by category.

All that we have in this case is the item, sans personal background on the person who made it, but we have a stamp on the inside of the dress that is unique. We have never seen another on an item identifying it as exhibited at the fair.

Having spent nearly 40 years researching and writing about the World’s Columbian Exposition, I have seen thousands of pieces of puzzles about bits of history from the fair. It would take a major commitment of time and energy to create a mini-archive of photos and information about souvenirs or exhibited items from the fair, but it remains possible, although less so as time goes by.

If any of our readers has ever seen an identical or similar stamp or tag for any item exhibited at the fair, please do let us know!